Common diagnosis test for CKD is urine/blood protein levels, Serum creatinine, Glomerular Filtration Rate; Kidney CT scans and Kidney biopsy.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis test
Protein urine test other wise called as Urine protein, Urine albumin and Albuminuria. Which measures the amount of proteins commonly albumin, found in a urine sample. Perform this test as a screening test for kidney disease. Normally, protein is not appeared in the urine when a routine dipstick test is performed. Normal values for a random urine sample are approximately 0 to 8 mg/dL if higher, then it may be due to diabetic nephropathy.
Microalbuminuria test measures for small quantities of protein commonly albumin in the urine sample. The amount of water in urine can vary and affect the concentration of albumin. Thus, the amount of creatinine is also measured, and the result has a ratio of albumin to creatinine. If an abnormally high level of albumin is noted, health care provider’s advice to repeat the test on a 24-hour urine sample. Perform this test to find kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) in a person with diabetes for a long duration. Normal albumin to the creatinine ratio is less than 2.5 mg/mmol for men and 3.5 mg/mmol for women.
Abnormal levels of the protein (mostly albumin) in the urine signal the beginning of a condition called microalbuminuria, often noted in diabetic nephropathy. Diagnose microalbuminuria if there are 30 to 300 mgs of albumin in two different 24-hour urine samples. Diagnose albuminuria if there are more than 300 mgs of albumin.
BUN (Blood urea nitrogen), Urea nitrogen is formed when proteins are broken down. Draw blood from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. Some drugs affect BUN levels so consult before going for a test. The normal value will be in the range of 7 - 20 mg/dl if higher, then it may be an indication for kidney disease.
Serum creatinine test is to measure the creatinine level in blood. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, an important part of muscle. Draw blood from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. This test is to examine kidney function. If kidney function is abnormal, blood has increased level of creatinine, due to decreased excretion of creatinine in the urine. Creatinine levels will vary depends on the person's size and muscle mass. A normal value is 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dL. Females usually have a lower creatinine than males.
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is the best way to find how well the kidney functions, no need to have another test to know the GFR. Calculate GFR from the blood creatinine, age, race, gender, and other factors. GFR value is helpful to determine the stage of kidney disease and helps to plan further treatment.
Ultrasound or CT scan produces a picture of the kidneys and urinary tract. Helpful to find any physical structural abnormalities, that is the kidney is larger or smaller than normal, whether have a problem like kidney stones or tumor.
In some time, perform a kidney biopsy to check for a specific type of kidney disease and see how much kidney damage has occurred.