Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis Tests

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High level of blood glucose is first test with random blood-glucose test, fasting blood-glucose test and/or oral glucose tolerance test.

This only helps to diagnose diabetes that is the condition with a high blood glucose/sugar level. After that how do we differentiate between diabetes type 1 & 2.

Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The type 1 diabetes can be confirming with autoantibody testing; they are:

  • Islet cell cytoplasmic auto-antibodies
  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-antibodies
  • Insulinoma-associated-2 auto-antibodies
  • Insulin Auto-antibodies

Islet cell cytoplasmic auto-antibodies test

This test helps to measure islet-cell autoantibodies that attack against a variety of islet cell proteins. This is the most commonly detected among newly diagnosed diabetes type 1, almost detected in about 80% of type 1 diabetes.

Glutamic acid decarboxylase auto antibodies test

This test helps to measure autoantibodies that attack against beta cell proteins (antigen) still it is not that much specific to beta cells. This is the also most commonly detected among newly diagnosed diabetes type 1, almost detected in about 75% of type 1 diabetes.

Insulinoma Associated 2 auto antibodies test

This test also measures autoantibodies attacking against beta cell antigens, but it is not specific, still detects in about 60% of type 1 diabetes.

Insulin Auto-antibodies test

This test measures autoantibody targeting against insulin; this is an antigen considered more specific to beta cells. Detected among 50% of type 1 diabetes children, it is not commonly detected among adults.
To confirm the diabetes type, expert suggest a combination of the above-said autoantibody tests for newly diagnosed diabetes, to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

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