Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the degeneration of the light-sensitive retina that progressively leads to night, peripheral, and then central vision loss.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited eye disorder characterized by progressive peripheral vision loss, followed by night-vision difficulties and then leads to central vision loss. Vision loss is due to slow degeneration of light sensitive cells (rods & cones) in the retina.
Retinitis pigmentosa symptoms
The first symptom of retinitis pigmentosa usually occurs in early childhood; mostly, both eyes are affecting with poor night vision, followed by narrowing of the field of vision. At its later stages of retinitis pigmentosa, only a tiny area of central vision exists called as tunnel vision, along with some little peripheral vision.
Retinitis pigmentosa causes
Causes of retinitis pigmentosa are unclear, except that inherit. Hereditary is blame as one of the causes, still there is some 45 to 50 % cases of RP without family history of RP.
Retinitis pigmentosa diagnosing tests
An electroretinogram (ERG) is useful to measures the performance of the retina to a light stimulus and thus helpful in the diagnosis of RP. A corneal electrode is gently placing behind the lower eyelid, slightly touching the cornea, and a neutral electrode is placing on the skin around the eye. A light is shining into the eye, and the electroretinogram records retina’s electrical changes, which provides information about the performance of rods and cones in the retina.
Retina can also diagnose using an indirect ophthalmoscope, an instrument that helps the doctor to examine the different eye parts through a dilated pupil. A healthy retina has an orange-red appearance, while retinitis pigmentosa has the orange area appears broken up with black or dark-brown spots of pigment. It is the cause by the breakdown of the pigment epithelial cells. In addition, the optic nerves become pale and the retinal blood vessels start narrowing.
Visual acuity test, refraction test, and peripheral vision test are part of eye examination in a patient suspected with retinal degeneration.