Low blood pressure in healthy individuals without any undesirable symptoms or organ damage needs no treatment. However, individuals whose blood pressure has a major drop from their usual range should need evaluation even without symptoms.
Low blood pressure treatment
The best treatment option for low blood pressure treatment is solving the underlying cause, such as dehydration, heart failure, diabetes, or hypothyroidism. When low-pressure is due to a medication side effect, usually treatment is a change in dosage or stops it.
Your doctor needs to identify the low blood pressure cause, because it is a must for proper treatment.
- Treatment for low blood pressure due to dehydration is with fluid and minerals (electrolytes) replacement. Treat mild dehydration (without nausea and vomiting) with oral fluids and electrolytes. Hospitalization is required for moderate to severe dehydration with intravenous fluids and electrolytes. Fludrocortisone is also useful to raise blood pressure by reducing sodium excretion, increasing heart rate and force when there is a requirement.
- Treatment for low blood pressure due to blood loss (anemia) is with intravenous blood transfusions or medication to increase hemoglobin. Continuous and severe bleeding needs immediate treatment. Erythropoietin is best for low blood pressure treatment, if the cause is due to anemia.
- Treat postural hypotension with lifestyle changes such as increasing water, salt intake, caffeine beverages, and using compression stockings to press the leg veins thus reducing blood pooling in the leg veins. In some patients with low blood pressure with undesirable symptoms needs medication. Orthostatic or postural hypotension occurs when there is a sudden and significant decrease in the systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure when a person stands up. It occurs within three minutes of standing. It is due to abnormal blood pressure regulation, which is more common with aging. Pyridostigmine and Caffeine are the best choice for orthostatic or postural hypotension.
- Muscle weakness disease (e.g. myasthenia gravis) can cause low blood pressure. Pyridostigmine is useful in improving muscle strength thus helps to relieve fatigue, the most common symptom of hypotension.
- Postprandial hypotension refers to low blood pressure occurring after meals. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as Ibuprofen (Motrin) or indomethacin (Indocin) may be beneficial.
- For nerve, related low blood pressure Midodrine works by stimulating nerve endings in blood vessels, causing the blood vessels to tighten. In particular, it is for individual’s hypotension caused by kidney dialysis and for children with an infection. It is also for a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and hepatopulmonary syndrome.
- Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming infection leads to life-threatening low blood pressure. It requires emergency treatment with intravenous fluids and antibiotics.
- Bradycardia (a disorder of too slow heart rhythm) may be due to a medication side effect. In such a case of low blood pressure, your doctor needs to reduce, change or stop the medication that is behind the cause. Treat bradycardia due to sick sinus syndrome or heart block with an implantable pacemaker.
- Tachycardia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast. Treat atrial fibrillation with oral medications, electrical cardio-version, or pulmonary vein isolation (a catheterization procedure). Treat ventricular tachycardia with medications or with an implantable defibrillator.
Low blood pressure medicine
There are different types of medications are available for the low blood pressure treatment based on their causes; they are:
- Fludrocortisone is for orthostatic hypotension; low blood pressure that occurs when you stand up. This drug helps boost your blood volume, which raises blood pressure.
- Midodrine (Orvaten, Proamatine) can raise standing blood pressure levels in people with chronic orthostatic hypotension. It works by restricting the ability of your blood vessels to expand, which raises blood pressure.
- Pyridostigmine is useful to improve muscle strength in patients with a muscle disease (e.g. myasthenia gravis), thereby raises blood pressure.
- Caffeine acts as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, improves strength of heartbeat, and heart rate. It temporarily stops drowsiness and restoring alertness.
- Erythropoietin is for low blood pressure treatment, if the cause is anemia.
- NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are useful primarily to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever along with low blood pressure.