Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.
Diabetes is a significant cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and lower limb amputation.
Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose that occurs before the age of 70 years. WHO estimates that diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in 2016.
Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults has prediabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it.
More than one in every ten adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. For seniors (65 years and older) that figure rises to more than one in four.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms mostly go undiagnosed because many of the symptoms seem harmless.
However, if you know the signs of diabetes, then it helps early diagnosis, timely treatment that help avoid diabetes complications.
Before going into the details of the type 2 diabetes symptoms, you should know what glucose homeostasis is? Homeostasis means a stable condition throughout the body. The body is carrying out various complex interactions to maintain health. Maintaining blood glucose levels within the normal range is glucose homeostasis. If there is any disturbance to this glucose homeostasis, then it will lead to various bodily symptoms.
9 Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- Frequent urination.
- Severe thirst.
- Lack of energy (feeling tired)
- Unusual, too much hunger.
- Blurred vision.
- Dry and itchy skin.
- Losing sense or tingling in feet.
- Sore heals slowly.
- Unexpected sudden weight loss or gain
In type-2 diabetes, the symptoms start occurring more gradually. In some individuals, there are no symptoms at all, and so it often goes undiagnosed.
Many type 2 diabetes patients unknowingly have this condition and consult a doctor with signs of diabetes complications, such as tingling in the feet (neuropathy) or vision problems. That is why diabetes screening is essential for people at diabetes risk.
Symptoms of pre-diabetes are the same as that of the type 2 diabetes, however most notably lesser intensity, and some do not have any symptoms. Therefore, it is advisable to have diabetes testing regularly if you have a maximum number of diabetes risk factors.
How diabetes symptoms develop?
- Why are people with diabetes, pee often and in large quantities? If the blood sugar level gets elevated and your body cells are unable to consume it. Then, these high-sugar level remains, until the kidney flush out this extra sugar in the blood as urine (pee). Therefore, people with diabetes urinate frequently and or in large quantities; urine often contains sugar and other minerals (such as sodium, chloride, potassium, and bicarbonate).
- Why people with diabetes have severe, frequent Thirst? The human body needs water to keep enough blood and other fluids. However, frequent urination leads to depletion of liquid called dehydration that leads to a shortage in saliva, causing dry mouth and throat. Dehydration increases the osmotic blood pressure and lowers blood volume. The kidney releases renin-angiotensin that stimulates the hypothalamus to signal thirst. Thus, people with diabetes have frequent thirst and need to drink often.
- Why people with diabetes have Lack of Energy, Feeling Tired & Fatigue? Inadequate insulin secretion or insulin resistance prevents the body from consuming the available blood glucose. Also, the kidney flushes out excess sugar along with minerals (such as sodium, chloride, potassium, and bicarbonate) from the body. These minerals are required for energy that gone unutilized. This lack of glucose absorption, removal of vital minerals, and dehydration leads to a lack of energy; thus, diabetic’s feel tired.
- Why are people with diabetes having too much hunger? – Experiencing hunger within few minutes after eating. In almost 40% of people, the thirst mechanism is so weak that – it mistakenly signals as hunger.
- Why are people with diabetes have blurred vision? – Some may unknowingly have diabetes and feeling happy to note that they do not need glasses anymore to see distant objects. Mostly these people are myopia (Shortsightedness). It is because an increase or decrease in blood-sugar level makes the eye lens and (or) corneal tissue to swell or shrink respectively, results in varying vision. Others may find their vision turns blur, based on how high the blood sugar level is. With proper treatment, if the blood sugar level returns to normal, blurred vision (or sometimes clear vision) disappears.
- Why people with diabetes have dry and itchy skin? Dehydration and inadequate supply of nutrients to the skin makes it lose its lust and shine. Furthermore, the dehydrated skin result is dull, flaky, rough, and dry skin. Which makes the skin itchy?
- Why are people with diabetes losing sense or tingling in their feet? Numbness or tingling sensation among healthy individuals when they sit in a position for an extended time. It is due to disturbances in blood circulation in these areas. Similarly, people with high blood sugar levels generally have a short supply of nutrients to the extremities causing numbness or tingling sensation in their feet.
- Why are people with diabetes, Sores heals slowly? Healing takes longer due to low nutrient supply. Also, the immune system does not work efficiently in the case of high blood sugar because of the interactions between various hormones and enzymes. Thus, diabetics sore takes longer to heal.
- Why are people with diabetes loss or gain weight? Some lose weight -because of the low consumption of blood glucose due to insulin resistance. Some with diabetes gain weight because of frequent hunger, continuous dumping of food items, and unnecessary fat storage. Thus, people with diabetes have sudden weight loss or weight gain.
If you experience some of the above-said symptoms, then you should undergo a blood test to rule out diabetes.
Even if you are diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, then proper treatment can help manage blood sugar levels and also -possible to reverse diabetes with your consistent effort.