Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by high blood-glucose levels. This abnormal rise in glucose levels in the blood due to either insulin deficiency or to resistance of the body’s cells to the action of insulin. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines four major types of diabetes.
Classification of Diabetes mellitus
It is classified based on the cause or mode of treatments;
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) - need insulin shots to maintain the blood-glucose level,
- Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - insulin shots are not must to normalize the glucose level,
- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) - diabetes develops during pregnancy and mostly disappears after delivery,
- secondary to other conditions (e.g. pancreatic disease, Hormonal disease, Drug or chemical exposure, Insulin receptor abnormalities, certain genetic syndromes).
Diagnosis of diabetes is by the presence of the classic signs & symptoms and unequivocally elevated blood-glucose levels, by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 140 mg/dl, or by venous plasma glucose 200 mg/dl at 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose challenge.
There are two major types of diabetes
Diabetes is broadly classified into two major types.
- Type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, the pancreas is failed to produce hormone insulin. Resulting in high blood-glucose level and so, the patients need insulin shots.
- Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or insulin resistance, the pancreas produces insulin, but insufficient quantity or body become insensitive to insulin and need excess insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is very common, particularly along elderly people.
Subdivisions in Type 2 diabetes
- pre-diabetes - blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose as diabetes. That is borderline diabetes can be reversed with proper food and physical activities.
- gestational diabetes - develops during pregnancy due to hormonal changes that occur naturally during pregnancy.