Type 1 diabetes mostly develop among young people, however, it can also develop among adults. It develops when your pancreas stops producing insulin.
Type 1 diabetes is less common compared to type 2 diabetes; it is about 5 to 10% of all cases of diabetes. Nevertheless, like type 2 diabetes, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been rising.
19 Complete Type-1 Diabetes Risk Factors
Once type 1 diabetes consider to develop only among children and younger adults, and thus it was previously known as juvenile diabetes.
In 2012, according to the American Diabetes Association an estimated 29.1 million people (9.3% of the population), of these 1.25 million (0.4% of the population) were type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can attack at any age, most typically in childhood or adolescence (the late 30s). Males and females have equal risk. Following may be the risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes:
- Genetics: one of the parents with type 1 diabetes; the risk is a little high. The marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a confirmed risk to develop diabetes. In fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex (es) develop type 1. If your mother has type 1, you have little risk. If your father has type 1, you have a little higher risk. If both the parents have type 1, the risk is much higher. However, one with genetic predisposition requires an environmental trigger or series of triggers (such as a virus, toxin, or drug).
- Family history - Type 1 diabetes, thyroid diseases, and another autoimmune disease in first and second-degree relatives is an independent risk factor.
- Diseases of the pancreas - injury or any pancreatic diseases can affect its ability to produce insulin and lead to type-1 diabetes.
- Neonatal infections (being ill in early infancy) - specifically viral infection such as mumps, hepatitis, and cytomegalovirus. Researchers have found certain viruses may trigger type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body, instead of fight infection. Viruses believed to trigger T1D include German measles, coxsackie B, mumps, enteroviruses, adenovirus, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus.
- Matured mother - Born for an older mother at an age over 35 years.
- Maternal preeclampsia - a mother who had preeclampsia, a condition in pregnancy marked by high blood pressure.
- Maternal infections - Maternal virus infections during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
- High birth weight (more than 4 Kg or 9 pounds) - There is a relatively weak but significant association between birth weight and increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
- Inadequate Vitamin D – Research shows that there is a link between vitamin D and type 1 diabetes, vitamin D deficiency increases the risk towards t1d.
- Obesity during childhood - Research study found evidence for an association between childhood obesity, or higher BMI, and increased risk of subsequent Type 1 diabetes.
- The short duration of breastfeeding - Less than six months of breastfeeding and early introduction of bottle-feeding linked with type1 diabetes risk. Early introduction of cow’s milk or cow's milk-based formula is also has a link to t1d risk.
- Early introduction of cereals and gluten - The dietary introduction of cereal and gluten before four months in infants has linked with t1d risk.
- Having other autoimmune disorders - such as Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (a form of hypothyroidism), Addison's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), celiac disease, autoimmune gastritis, Vitiligo, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, or pernicious anemia.
- Environmental pollutants - Cumulative exposure to ozone and sulfate in the air may predispose to type 1 diabetes in children. The study indicates that living in an area with elevated levels of air pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for offspring T1D. Passive smoking in the household may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes.
- Leaky Gut Syndrome - Several studies have identified increased intestinal permeability is a risk for the onset of type 1 diabetes. Increased gut permeability precedes T1D onset and wheat (gluten) autoimmunity is present at least half the time of T1D onset.
- Imbalanced gut microbiome - Researchers found the gut microbiome imbalances in gut flora is associated with increased gut permeability. It means a harmful germ such as yeast or bacteria should not be in the digestive tract. The antibiotic is taken for the upper respiratory infection, acne, or the ear infection can trigger an imbalance in the gut microbiome.
- Abnormal T-cell immune response to wheat - The medical journal Diabetes reported at least half of Type 1 had an abnormal T-cell immune response to dietary wheat proteins that trigger different gene expression than celiac patients. Wheat has been proven in animal studies as a trigger for T1D.
- Nitrates or nitrites - Since the 1980s, there have been some studies looking to see if children exposed to higher nitrate or nitrite levels through food or water have a higher risk of type 1 diabetes. A large study in Finland found that children with type 1 diabetes and their mothers ate more nitrite than children (and their mothers) who did not have diabetes.
You know, there is a 23% increase in the prevalence of T1D in children and teenagers between 2001 and 2009. It may be due to increased environment triggers.
Omega-3 fatty acids have considered providing certain protection against type-1 diabetes. Therefore, regular consumption of fish containing omega fatty acid during pregnancy and breastfeeding can reduce your child’s risk of type-1 diabetes.
The number of T1D cases has doubled during this decade. Interestingly, allergic reactions, food allergies, and other autoimmune diseases are also on the rise.
Is type 1 diabetes a hereditary condition?
If one of the parents with diabetes type 1, in the case of father your chance for type 1 is 6%, in the case of the mother (had diabetes before 25 years) your chance is 4% and 1% chance if the mother had diabetes after her 25 years. Your risk would be double if your parent were diagnosed for around ten years.
Does a child get diabetes type 1, without any family history?
Research shows that only 10 % of people with type 1 diabetes have a family history of first-degree relatives, such as a sibling, parent, of offspring. These shows there are other important factors besides just genes that influence the development of diabetes type 1.
There is a misconception; type 1 diabetes is a genetic disease and mostly happens with family history. However, in reality, only 10 % who have diagnosed with type 1 have a family history of the disease.