If the body’s insulin production is insufficient or stopped, called as type-1 diabetes. The autoimmune disorder causes T1D and needs to treat with insulin shots.
Type-1 diabetes is also known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and juvenile diabetes. It is spelled as type-i diabetes, diabetes one and diabetes 1.
Formerly, it was known as "juvenile diabetes," because it represents a majority of the cases in children, teenagers, or young adults, but now we came to know that it can also affect adults.
Among youth ages younger than ten years, the rate of new cases of type 1 diabetes was 19.7 per 100,000 each year for type 1 diabetes. Among youth aged ten years or older, the number of new cases was 18.6 per 100,000 each year for type 1 diabetes.
What is Type-1 diabetes?
Only about 10% of the people with diabetes are type 1, remaining 90% are type 2.
What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes develops due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the islet cells of Langerhans in the pancreas. It usually ends up with the more or less absolute deficiency of insulin. This destruction process starts a long time before the illness diagnosed. Thus, there exists an opportunity for prevention of diabetes in the future.
Type-1 diabetes needs insulin treatment and healthy diabetes lifestyle change for proper blood-glucose level maintenance and to avoid diabetes complications. Insulin cannot be taken through the mouth because insulin is a hormone (protein) that is broken down by the digestive system.
Sometimes after initial treatment, some peoples have a period from a few weeks to a few months, when the pancreas is again start-producing insulin known as "diabetes honeymoon period." During this time, a person may need to take less or no insulin, depending on how much insulin you produce. After this honeymoon period, you need to take insulin for the rest of his life.
What is an autoimmune disease? Due to the combination of genetics and environmental triggers, the immune system overacts by producing antibodies that mistakenly attack their body tissues instead of fighting infections.
In the case of t1d, Immune system antibodies attack and destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
Scientists are not sure why it happens? But the immune system mistakenly sees the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign and destroys them. This attack is known as "autoimmune" disease.
An autoimmune attack occurs after viral infection; mumps, rubella, cytomegalovirus, measles, influenza, encephalitis, polio, or Epstein-Barr virus.
The cells in the islets of Langerhans, where insulin secreted in the pancreas, and these viruses are similar.
Thus if infected by these viruses, then few individuals immune systems mistakenly attacked the islet of Langerhans by considering it as virus and damaged it permanently. As a result, insulin production is stopped leads to type-1 diabetes; it is mostly diagnosing after diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) episode.
What is islet cells of Langerhans? Islets of Langerhans (or islands of Langerhans) is an irregularly shaped patch of endocrine tissue within the pancreas. The most common are the beta cells that produce insulin.
What is insulin? Insulin is the primary hormone in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Insulin is crucial for various metabolic processes; promotes
the metabolism of glucose by the body’s cells,
prevents the liver from releasing glucose,
encourage muscles to take up amino acids (components of protein), and
Inhibits the breakdown & release of fats.
8 Challenges of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and requires a complex and demanding treatment regimen.
- Prepare to give up - certain unhealthy things like sugary drinks, refined carbs, and Tran’s fat-rich snacks/foods.
- Carb counting - Diabetes management requires an intense awareness of food intake. Figuring out what is in the food you are eating, mainly how many carbs in it. Instead of seeing the food as food, your brain starts seeing carbs as numbers.
- Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) - refers to home blood glucose testing for people with type 1 diabetes. The 2015 NICE guidelines recommend that people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose at least four times per day, including before each meal and before bed.
- Self-administration of insulin - Learn the role of insulin, types of insulin, where to inject it, and methods of insulin delivery.
- Imitate your pancreas – gather enough information and knowledge to mimic pancreas with tools that are inferior to a pancreas.
- Spotting high and low sugar levels – understand your body better to accurately detect low/high BS and learn how to manage it properly.
- Being always vigilant - Type 1 diabetes is a condition where a small mistake can be fatal, and this is the toughest challenge.
- Being disciplined is the next toughest challenge! Fed-up, losing heart, being lazy, and losing the spirit is shared. Still, you have to come out with full vigor, similar to a new Phoenix emerged from the fire. A study has shown that only 30% of people with diabetes are compliant with the prescribed drug regimen. Compliance with insulin therapy, SMBG, regular eating hours, and prescribed exercises are essential.
- Identify the odds - Remember various things that affect blood sugar beyond food, insulin, and activity. For instance, too much stress and too little sleep both negatively affect blood glucose.
- Make sure all the numbers are right before bedtime – What should be your BG number before going to bed to avoid hyper and hypo? Nighttime hypoglycemia is a vexing problem among people on tight diabetes control. Those in strict control were three times more likely to have hypoglycemia than those on standard regimens. And more than half of these episodes occurred while sleeping.
- Dealing with hypoglycemia - Make sure you do not put yourself in a dangerous situation such as passing out while sleeping or driving a car.
Eight things that make your diabetes life easier are reduced stress, regular regimental schedule, exercise, using technology, support networks, organize, knowledge, and educate yourself.
Can type 1 diabetes be reversed? Sadly, no. Don’t lose your hope; there are numerous clinical studies are underway and expecting an early breakthrough.
Many believe the pharmaceutical companies put profit over principle, preferring to keep people living with diabetes dependent on costly insulin than to cure them once and for all. However, there are many parents of a type 1 diabetes child who are striving hard to find a cure.
Put your mind to meditate/pray for an early breakthrough. Pray for success to these positive minded people over negative.
Is it possible to save a partially functioning Pancreas? For more than a decade, clinical trials are underway trying to halt this endocrine failure by prescribing immune-modulating drugs to newly onset type 1 diabetes. During the stage of diagnosis, almost more than 90% of islets would already have destroyed. So the chance to save pancreas function is only possible if you can diagnose early before much damage.
Why me? Why now? Why Diabetes? Why this punishment? Why did God allow it to happen to me?
These questions are heartbreaking. Who on earth 'likes' this big D? It just happened. And it sucks. We can mourn the loss of the functioning pancreas, cry a little, and then move on.
It is distressing and life-disturbing to receive a diagnosis of a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. All at least most, when first diagnosed with diabetes experience the “Why me? Syndrome.” It is a common reaction!
Instead of having the attitude of a victim, change your thought, take your diagnosis as a life challenge and say “Why not me?”
Today, you are lucky to have numerous innovative tools to help you manage your diabetes effectively than ever before.
Once you accept your diagnosis; you can stop wasting your energy as being angry at it. Accept your responsibility and channelize your energy towards effective management of your condition. If you take control of your life, then you can thrive with diabetes!!!