Insulin a hormone needed for effective conversion of glucose into energy, keep as active, and maintain the blood-glucose level.
What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone (a protein molecule), which regulates the level of blood glucose by signaling our body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. Additionally, if the blood-glucose level remains high after consumption, then it will prompt our liver to store it as glycogen in the liver or muscle for future requirement.
The hormone insulin in secreted by the pancreas; a digestive organ located in the upper abdominal region.
What are functions of Insulin?
Insulin is a hormone (a protein) secreted by groups of cells within the pancreas called islet cells. Food digested, and glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the bloodstream after a meal. With respect to the glucose level in blood, the pancreas secretes Insulin. Body cells have insulin receptors, which bind the insulin, which is in the blood circulation. The cell with insulin attached can absorb sugar glucose from the blood stream and burnt it for energy.
In people who do not have diabetes, the body makes the right amount of insulin on its own. However, diabetes requires certain quantity of insulin throughout day and night.
It regulates glucose into your bloodstream: the important role of insulin is to keep your blood-glucose level within a normal range. After your meals, carbohydrates are break down into glucose (primary source of energy) and dumped into your bloodstream. Normally, your pancreas responds to this by releasing proportional amount of insulin, which allows glucose to enter your tissues.
Storage of excess glucose within the liver: Excess glucose level in the bloodstream, after consumption by your tissues is stored within the liver or muscles as glycogen for future requirement.
Release of glucose into the blood stream: Between meals or when fasting, insulin levels are low. Liver is responding to this by converting glycogen to glucose and releases into the bloodstream to maintain the normal blood-glucose level.
Insulin and type 1 diabetes
If no insulin, you can eat food and still in a state of starvation since, the cells cannot be able to absorb glucose without insulin. This is the reason for Type 1 diabetic (no or insufficient insulin secretion) can become very weak without insulin shots. The type 1 diabetic’s has deficiency or no insulin secretion, so they must have it replaced via artificial insulin.
Insulin and type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is commonly had been high blood-glucose, because of insulin resistance not insulin deficiency. Mostly, in the case of type 2 diabetes, the level of insulin in the blood is slightly higher than, a non-diabetic. Insulin resistance means the body cells not to respond properly or sluggish to the insulin and thus cannot consume enough glucose. This leads to high blood-glucose level than normal. Treat type 2 diabetes, mostly with oral medicine and rarely do they need insulin shots.